Gladyshev Georgi Pavlovich

Professor Georgi Pavlovich Gladyshev, President and founder of the International Academy of Creative Endeavors, Chief of the Laboratory of thermodynamics and macrokinetics of non-equilibrium processes (1970-2005) and Principal Researcher (2006-) of N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, HT-Researcher of Institute of Human Thermodynamics (USA) is the son of Pavel Gladyshev and Apollinariya Zaikova. Born on 19 September 1936 in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, he graduated the Chemistry Department of the State University in Alma-Ata in 1959 and received the Degree of Candidate of Science (Ph.D.) in 1962 and a Doctorate Degree in polymer chemistry in 1966. He became Professor of Physical Chemistry in 1969 and in 1970 Chief of the Laboratory at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR (Russian) Academy of Sciences in Moscow . Since 1968 he has been a visiting professor and Scientific adviser at several state universities, industrial plants, and firms. In 1989 he was elected President of the Academy of Creative Endeavors of the USSR (now - the International Academy of Creative Endeavors). In 1990 he became the head of the Institute of Ecological Biophysical Chemistry (now the Institute of Physicochemical Problems of Evolution of the International Academy of Creative Endeavors). He is the author of more than five hundred scientific articles, patents and ten monographs in the fields of Physical Chemistry, Life Science and Polymer Chemistry. His latest monographs include "Thermodynamics and Macrokinetics of Natural Hierarchical Processes" (Nauka, Moscow, 1988), "Ecological Biophysical Chemistry" (Nauka, Moscow, 1989), Thermodynamic theory of the evolution of living beings (Nova Science Pub., INC., N.Y., 1997), Supramolecular thermodynamics is a key to understanding phenomenon of life. What is life from a physical chemist's viewpoint , M., 2002; Second Edition - Moscow - Izevsk, 2003). He has conducted research in the fields of polymer chemistry, physical chemistry, biology (chemical kinetics, the physico-chemical mechanism of the formation of the planetary system, the mechanism of chirality formation, the nature of ball lightning, biological evolution, aging and macrothermodynamics).

He studied at the Chemistry Department of the State University in Alma-Ata where he engaged in experimental research in various fields of physical chemistry under Professor, academician M.I. Usanovich. He explored the phase diagrams for two-component systems, incorporating perchloric, sulphuric, nitric, acetic and chloroacetic acids. He confirmed the existence of cation nitronium in the nitrating mixtures and established the existence of a number of compounds of products of interacting inorganic acids. This was an excellent school for a physical chemist-experimenter.

As a post-graduate student at the Kazakh Academy of Science Institute of Chemistry under Professor, academician S.R. Rafikov, he conducted research in the mechanism of the polymerization of vinyl monomers with the aim of creating a new technological process in the manufacture of large blocks from organic glass. This research was continued and resulted in the industrial introduction of an original technology in attaining organic blocks. To date the efficiency of this technology has not been surpassed. The results of his research were summarized in the thesis of his doctorate.

While working at the Institute of Chemistry in Alma-Ata he published two books, one of which (an advanced textbook) is still used in laboratories as a practical manual - "The Polymerization of Vinyl Monomers" (Academy of Science of the Kazakhstan SSR, Alma-Ata, 1964, 322 p.). Between 1968 and 1970 he worked at the Institute of Chemistry of the Bashkiran Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Ufa (Ural). There together with his post-graduate students he carried out a number of researches in the field of immune adsorption, photochemistry, and synthesis of new polymers.

At the Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow , where he had been invited by professors, academicians N.N. Semenov and N.M. Emanuel, he organized a small Laboratory of thermostable polymers (1970) and since 1987 the Laboratory of thermodynamics and macrokinetics of non-equilibrium processes. He was in charge of research in the field of the radical polymerization and stabilization of polymers. Some results of the research are reflected in the monograph "Radical Polymerization at High Conversion" (Nauka, Moscow, 1974, 243 p., co-author, B.A. Popov) and a number of articles, for example Vysokomol. Soed., A18, No. 11, 2387-2394, 1976 and J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Chem. Ed., 14, 1753-1759, 1976. In the course of an experiment conducted in the same period, he discovered and explained the phenomenon of the periodic polymerization in the two-phase heterogeneous systems (Reports of USSR Academy of Sciences, 260, No. 6, 1394-1397, 1981).

Beginning with 1968-1970, he carried out theoretical research pertaining to the fundamental problem of physical science.

In February 1977 he published a scientific paper presenting an original model of the formation of the Solar System ("The Role of Physico-Chemical Processes in the Formation of the Planetary Systems", Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 28, February, 1977). Previously known models examined a number of stages of the planetary systems formation are merely taking into consideration the physical effects, including the magnetohydrodynamic phenomenon (H. Alfven, G. Arrhenius, and other). Professor Gladyshev's model includes a new lengthy stage of evolution that is connected with the diffusion (mass transfer) of matter of protosun into protonebulae. As a result of the chemical (physical chemical) reactions of matter of the protosun and protonebulae, new matter is formed which is condensed from a supersaturated (supercooling) state. The well-known mechanism (known in chemistry as the spatially periodic condensation) permits explaining the origin in the solar protonebula (as the planetary protonebulae) of ring structures, in accordance with the well-known law of Titius-Bode (The Moon and the Planets, 18, 217-221, 1978; 19, 89-98, 1978; 25, 413-425, 1981, co-author, V.P. Budtov). Professor Gladyshev's model allowed him to make a number of predictions that were subsequently confirmed by Voyager-2. Moreover the model foresaw the existence of rings encircling Uranus before their discovering in March 1977, also the rings of Neptune and other now known facts. A similar model was proposed also for the condensation of matter in the comets' atmosphere, etc. ("Thermodynamics and Macrokinetics of Natural Hierarchical Processes", Moscow , p. 288, 1988).

A theoretical study of the physical chemical processes (reactions) in deep Space permitted putting forward a new conception of the possible origin of the optical activity of molecules. On Earth when there is no stereospecific catalyst, it is impossible to give preference to left or right structures - the products of chemical reactions. This is impeded by the thermal background whose energy determined by the magnitude kT ( k - Boltzmann constant, T - temperature) extends by far the energy of natural electric and magnetic fields which in principle are able to orientate some responding molecules. In deep Space where there is only a background of relict radiation, and the intervals between the collisions of molecules are enormous, they can orientate themselves in natural electric and magnetic fields. During the interaction of oriented molecules a substance can be formed containing more left than right isomers or vice-versa. It stands to reason that this model describes the possible emergence of optical activity in separate parts of the Universe (The Moon and Planets, 19, 89-98, 1978; Origins of Life, 10, 247-254, 1980, co-author, M.M. Khasanov; J. Theor. Biol., 90, 191-198, 1981, co-author, M.M. Khasanov). Another model of the emergence of asymmetry in the bioworld is linked with the possible influence of Coriolis forces on the growth of living organisms. The model has reliable substantiation, if it is assumed that the growth of biotissues of separate organisms may be considered as a flow of some fluids (Ukrainian Polymer Journal, 1, No. 1, 55-62, 1992).

One of the models of ball lightning was made possible on the basis of the physico-chemical mechanisms. According to the model the ball lightning feeds on direct electric currents in the atmosphere. In the flame zone of ball lightning, atmospheric nitrogen is combustible. This endothermic reaction demands energy that is fed to it by currents flowing between the areas carrying volumetric electric charges. This short but original article was published in Reports of the USSR Academy of Sciences (24, No. 2, 341-344, 1983) and presented as a report at the International symposium in Tokyo (Science of Ball Lightning Fire Ball, Ed. Yoshi-Hiko Ohtsuki, World Scientific, Singapore, 1985, pp. 242-253).

From 1975 through 2003 Professor Gladyshev was engaged in working on biological macrothermodynamics. On its basis, he proposed the physical theory of biological evolution and aging (J. Theor. Biol. 75, 425- 444, 1978; Journal of Biological Systems, 1, No. 2, 1993; In.: Khimicheskaya Enciklopedia - Chemical Encyclopedia, Bolshaya Rossiiskaya Enciklopediya, Moscow, 4, 535, 1995; Biology Bulletin, ISSN 1062-3590, Russian Academy of Sciences, N. 1, 1995, 5-14; N1, 1996 and N4, 1996; J. Biological Physics 20, 213-222, 1994; 22, 1996; Vestnik RAMN, 1996; Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings, M., Luch, 1996; Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings, N.Y., Nova Science Pub., INC,1997; In: 1998 AAAS Annual Meeting and Science Innovation Exhibition, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Philadelphia, A-30, S-26; On the Thermodynamics, Entropy and Evolution of Biological Systems: What is Life from a Physical Chemist's Viewpoint, Entropy, 1999, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 920; Thermodynamic Theory of Biological Evolution and Aging. Experimental Subjection of Theory, Entropy, 1999, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 5568; The Hierarchical Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Living Systems in Action, Seed J., In Internet, 2001; Supramolecular Thermodynamics is a Key to Understanding Phenomenon of Life - What is life from a physical chemist's viewpoint , Moscow - Izevsk, 2002 and 2003, Second Ed.; On the Principle of Substance Stability and Thermodynamic Feedback in Hierarchic Systems of Bioworld, Biology Bulletin, Vol. 29, No.1, 2002; Thermodynamic Self-organization as a Mechanism of Hierarchical Structure Formation of Biological Matter, Progress in Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism, UK, Vol.28. pp.157-188, 2003; Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution: Aging of Living Beings. International, Journal of Modern Physics B 2004;18(6):801-825;

The Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Evolution of Living Systems, Journal of Human Thermodynamics, December 05, Vol. 1, Issue. 7 , pgs. 68-81, ISSN: 1559-386X.

Macrothermodynamics studies on the integral level complex heterogeneous chemical and biological systems, primarily the open hierarchical systems, exchanging matter and energy with the environment. The methods of macrothermodynamics are based on the foundation of classical thermodynamics and macrokinetics aimed in the development of classical thermodynamic theory.

The law of unidirectional series of relaxation times (life times) the law of temporal hierarchies has been formulated:

... << t m << t im << t organelles << t cell << t org << t pop << t com<< (1)

Here t average lifetime of free molecules-metabolites ( m), supramolecular (intermolecular) structures ( im ), organelles ( organelle ), cells in the tissue ( cell ); organisms ( org ); populations ( pop ); communities ( com). The law (1) is a general law of nature.

If one were to examine for instance, the hierarchy of man's - "community, population, organism, cell, organelle, macromolecule, molecule", one would notice that in many cases molecules of metabolites in the bio-tissue freely exist (live) on average minutes, macromolecules - many hours, organelles many days. Cells, organisms, populations, communities, live still longer.

However, these structural types are not general for all bio-systems. For instance, it is possible that certain cells (nerve cells, heart muscle cells in the adult organism) are not renewed throughout the human life. These cells are, as if, not cells in the usual sense; in this case, t (cell) should be removed from the series (1). A similar phenomenon is observed for the fruit fly: no cell in the adult fly body undergoes division. Likewise, the proteins of the animal eye lens are almost never renewed. In this case, the lifetimes of these macromolecules do not fit the series (1) either. The space hierarchy does not match the temporal hierarchy in the above examples. In such a case, the corresponding lifetimes of the structures are as though involved in the next temporal hierarchy.

If one has no information about lifetimes of organelles, cells one can use the law (1) in form:

... << t m << t im << t org << t pop << t com <<

It is easily shown that the existence of series of the lifetimes allows us to pick out the summation of structures of one hierarchy as a subsystem and to consider this subsystem as a quasi-closed system. In order to study such a system, it is possible to use the methods of quasi-equilibrium hierarchical thermodynamics. For example, insofar as cells live for a far shorter time than organisms, one may consider that the organisms' (organ's) medium for all practical purposes does not change during the lifetime of many types of cells. This medium fulfills the role of a thermostat (in a broad sense of this physical term) for the quasi-closed subsystem (system) of the organism cells.

It is necessary to bear in mind that each species of living being (tissue, types of cell, types of organelle , etc.) is characterized by its lifetime values of the elements of the different hierarchical structures. However, for all lower level hierarchies of living systems, which is part of a higher level hierarchy (population, organism, cell, supramolecular formation, and so on), series (1) usually is fulfilled.

This law can be formulated in another way: Any living system of any temporal hierarchical level in a normal state has a thermostat - a surrounding medium that is characterized by slightly changing average values of thermodynamic parameters.

The main reason for this statement is connected with the phenomenon of metabolism and the exchange of mater of different hierarchies. Lower level hierarchical structures are often reproduced in a medium of higher level hierarchical structures during the lifetime of the latter. Thus, we have:

t i << t i+1, (2)

where t i - average lifetime of structures of lower temporal hierarchical level, t i+1 - average lifetime of structures of higher temporal hierarchical level.

The existence of law (1-2) allows us to use quasi-closed thermodynamic models to investigate living systems.

Although the "spectrums" of the lifetimes of each structural type is wide, nevertheless it is possible to distinguish triads of relaxation lifetimes with strong inequality. The latter signifies that one can distinguish the system under study and its thermostat (the environment with practically no changes in the significant parameters). If this is achieved, it is possible to use with a certain degree of approximation the principles of classical thermodynamics and macrokinetics in describing the evolution of the biological systems (which may be presented as a series of successive processes of condensation whereby higher hierarchical structures arise from the lower hierarchical structures) . Unlike non-equilibrium thermodynamics of systems far from the state of equilibrium, macrothermodynamics explores systems close to the state of equilibrium; their conditions are determined by functions whose differentials are total.

Professor Gladyshev succeeded in substantiating that the mean specific values of the Gibbs function related to a unit of volume or mass for intermolecular interactions, at the formation of supramolecular (supra-cellar) structure of a j-th organism's tissue, has the tendency to a minimum. This trend of to a minimum accounts for the accumulation in the biosystem of a substance with a chemically high-energy capacity that leads to the growth of a specific chemical component of Gibbs function of bio-object in the course of ontogenesis, phylogenesis and separate stages of evolution. This approach made it possible to substantiate and experimentally prove the possibility of accumulating and transferring hereditary thermodynamic features in the course of extensive periods of biological evolution (Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 63, No. 3, p. 164, 1993; Encyclopedia of Chemistry, vol.4, 1995, Moscow). The macrothermodynamic theory permits the spreading to the biological systems (quasi-closed systems) of all hierarchies the principle of Le Chatelier-Braun on a quantitative basis. The latter is very promising for pharmacology, therapy, gerontology, geriatrics, nutrition, physiology of sports, in particular it will make it possible to determine man's physiological age, the optimal doses of medication, the optimal work-out load during training sessions, etc. Recently the macrothermodynamic theory has spread to social systems of human society that apparently resulted in building one of the prospective models in the economy (Academy of Creative Endeavors, Moscow, p. 6, 1993).

Professor Gladyshev, H.E. is a member of many associations, societies and academies: Honorary Member of the International Order of Merit - IOM; Member of IBA - Cambridge, England; Honorary Member of International Higher Education Academy of Sciences - IHEAS, Moscow; Honorary Member of Russian Higher Education Academy of Sciences; Active member - academician of International Academy of Sciences - IAS, Munich; Member (academician) of International Academy of Creative Endeavors; Member of Academy of Human Pursuit, (USSR, Russia); Member of Russian Academy of Physical (Natural) Sciences - RAEN, Moscow; Member of Academy of Book's Arts, Russia; Member (academician) of A.M. Prokhorov Engineering Science Academy of Russia; Member of Geopolitical Academy of Russia, Member of World Literary Academy, England; Member of the International Academy of Sciences, Education, Industry, & Arts (CA, the USA); Member of the New York Academy of Sciences (to 2000); Member of Engineer-Technological Academy of the Chuvash Republic; Member of the Amer. Chem. Soc., 1978; Member of the National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; Member of the academic Advisory council for the Laboratory of Bio-organic- phosphorus chemistry (Tsinghua university, China); International Member AAAS - USA, 1996 - 2001 and others. He is one of the Editors of the "Journal of Biological Systems" (World Scientific, An international publisher, Singapore ). Member of the Advisory Board of the Ukrainian Polymer Journal, 1991-1993; Journal Entropy (the USA , SWITZ to 2006), Electronic Journal of Mathematical and Physical Sciences (the USA ) and so on. Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Journal The Summary of Technologies ( Russia ).

He is also the recipient of many honors and awards, including the Willard Gibbs Gold Medal, the International Academy of Creative Endeavors (1991); The "World Intellectual" (1993, IBC); "The Twentieth Century Award for Achievement" (1992, IBC); "Grand Ambassador of Achievement" - twenty-five years of outstanding personalities (1992, ABI); World Lifetime Achievement Award (USA -1993, 1995, 1996). He has been honored the International Order of Merit "Exellentia"(1994); Gold Ivan Pavlov's Pin of the International Academy of Science, Munich (1999); Order of Creation, International Academy of Science, Russia Department, Moscow (2000) and others. His name includes into the list of very outstanding scientists (*,**,***) of all times.

In addition to his great interest in science, he enjoys music, mountaineering and travelling. He has one son, Andrei, who was born in 1960, a daughter, Ekaterina, who was born in 1962, a grandson Ilya, who was born in 1984.